“I want to know the general history and don’t know where to start…”

There are many rooms in the house of general history and if you want to know where to start may I suggest you examine the official genealogies in the royal chartroom. A quick glance will enable you and other new readers to see some of the claims by birth and marriage of the great sovereign houses of Europe. This is the conservative beginning of the study of the general history of England. The activist and progressive studies (and the stories!) come later.



Sovereigns since the Norman conquest of England





House     Name       Accession  Years  Married                  Children     ____________________________________________________________________________

Norman   William    1066            21       Matilda of Flanders   Robert, Willam II, Henry I, Adela.

                 William II I087            13

                  Henry I    1100            35   1. Matilda of Scotland   William, Matilda.

                                                              2. Adela of Louvain

                  Stephen    1135            19       Matilda of Boulogne  Eustace


Planta-     Henry II  1154             35    Eleanor of Guienne   Henry, Richard I, Geoffrey, John.

 -genet      Richard I 1189            10     Berengaria of Navarre

                  John        1199            17   1. Hadwisa of Gloucester    Henry III, Eleanor (Married, Simon de Montfort)

                                                            2. Isabella of Angoulème

                 Henry III 1216            56      Eleanor of Provence    Edward I, Margaret , (Married, Alexander III of Scotland)

                 Edward I 1272             35  1. Eleanor of Castile        Edward II 

                                                          2. Margaret of France    (Lines of descent , Edward I & II, are broken)

                 Edward II 1307           20     Isabella of France          Edward III

                 Edward III 1327          50    Philippa of Hainault       Black Prince, Lionel, John of Gaunt, Edmund.

(The Queen was pregnant 18 consecutive years).

                 Richard II 1377            22   1. Anne of Bohemia

                                                            2. Isabella of France


Lancaster Henry IV 1399            14 1. Mary de Bohun            Henry V, John Duke of Bedford, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester

                                                           2. Joan of Navarre

                Henry V  1413              9  Catherine of France        Henry VI

                Henry VI 1422            39  Margaret of Anjou          Edward


York         Edward IV 1461           22 Elizabeth Woodville        Edward V, Richard, Duke of York,       Elizabeth.

                  Edward V   1483             2 months

                  Richard III 1483            2  Anne Neville                   Edward.


Tudor       Henry VII  1485          24  Elizabeth of York            Arthur, Henry VIII, Margaret, Mary

               Henry VIII 1509         38 1. Katherine of Aragon    Mary

                                                            2. Anne Boleyn                 Elizabeth I

                                                            3. Jane Seymour                Edward VI

                                                            4. Anne of Cleves

                                                            5. Catherine Howard

                                                         6. Catherine Parr

                  Edward VI  1547          6

                  Mary I       1553          5      Married, Philip II of Spain

                  Elizabeth I 1558        45


Stuart      James I      1603         22     Anne of Denmark            Henry, Charles I, Elizabeth,

                 Charles I   1625         24     Henrietta Maria of France  Chalres II, James II, Mary.

                 Commonwealth 1649   4

                 Protectorate 1653         7

                 Charles II    1660        25    Catherine of Portugal

                 James II       1685         4  1. Anne Hyde                        Mary, Anne.

                                                           2. Mary of Modena               James Francis Edward.

                 William & Mary 1689 13

                 Anne            1702      12      Prince George of Denmark


Hanover  George I      1714      13      Sophia of Brunswick          George II

                 George II    1727       33     Caroline of Anspach         Frederick, Prince of Wales; William , Duke of Cumberland.

                 George III   1760       60     Charlotte-Sophia of  Mecklenburg-Strelitz    George IV, William IV, Edward. Duke of Kent.

                 George  IV  1820       10     Caroline of Brunswick

                 William IV  1830          7    Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen

                 Victoria       1837        64    Albert of Saxe-Coburg       Edward VII, Alfred, Arthur, Leopold, Victoria, Alice,Helena, Louise, Beatrice.

                 Edward VII 1901         9    Alexandra of Denmark       Albert, George V, Louise, Victoria, Maud.

                 George V    1910        26   Victoria Mary of Teck        Edward VIII, George VI, Mary, Henry, George, John.


Windsor  Edward VIII 1936  (abdicated the same year)

(from 1917) George VI 1936  16 Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon  Elizabeth II, Margaret Rose.

                 Elizabeth     1952         Philip Montbatten        Charles, Anne, Andrew, Edward.

                                                      (formerly Prince Philip

                                                      of Greece and Denmark)

                                                      created Duke of Edinburgh.






Lancaster & York



                                                                                                              Edward III      m.    Phillippa of Hainault

                                                                                                                1312-1377                  1314-1369



       Edward               Lionel of Antwerp                  John of Gaunt                                                        Edmund of Langley                             Thomas of Woodstock

Prince of Wales         Duke of Clarence                 Duke of Lancaster                                                         Duke of York                                     Duke of Gloucester

   1330-1376                  1338-1368                             1340-1399                                                                   1341-1402                                                1355-1397

"The Black Prince"                                                   m. 1 Blanche of   m. 2 Constance                                                                                             (See Chart VII)

                                                                                          Lancaster            of Castile                        

                                                                                                                m. 3 Katherine Swynford   


                                                                                                                          and in dispute)

                                                                                                                         "The Beauforts"

         |                                     |                                         |                                 (See Chart III)                            |


                                                                                                                              ¦|___ |________________________________________|¦                                                                                                                Richard II                     Philippa                   Henry IV  m. Mary de Bohun                                                Edward               Richard                 m. Anne Mortimer

1367-1400                   1355-1381                 1367-1413      c1366-1394                                                Duke of York     Earl of Cambridge             1390-1411

                                              m.                                                                                                                c1373-1415§         c1375-1415 ex.             (See below, left)

                                 Edmund Mortimer                                                                                  ¦|_______________|______________________________________|¦

                                 3rd Earl of March                                                                                  Isabella  m. Henry Bourchier                Richard    m. Cecily Neville

                                       1352-1381                                                                                                             1st Earl of Essex               Plantagenet       1415-1495

                                             ¬                                                                                                                      1409-1483                      Duke of York

                                                                                                                                                                (See Chart VIII)                    1411-1460§



____|____      ¦|___________|_________|¦         ¦|_____|____________________________________________________________|¦

Elizabeth          Roger                Sir Edmund            Henry V                Thomas                       John                             Humphrey

       m         4th Earl of March    Mortimer            1387-1422         Duke of Clarence   Duke of Bedford         Duke of Gloucester

Sir Henry      1373-1398§           1376-1409          m.  Katherine         1388-1431§             1389-1435                      1390-1447

Percy                      m.                          m.                 ¬  de Valois                 m.               m. 1  Anne of                m. 1  Jacqueline

"Hotspur"          Eleanor             Katherine                1401-1437          Margaret                  Burgundy                      de Hainault

1361-1403§        Holland                d.1413                   (Ancestor           Holland                  1404-1432                            (diu)

       |                1373-1405            (daughter                  of Tudors.          d. 1439           m. 2  Jaquetta of           m. 2  Eleanor

Henry Percy              ¬                         of                 (See Chart IV)                                      Luxembourg                   Cobham

2nd Earl of                                       Owen                                                                                     1416-1472                d. 1446 or 57

Northumberland                          Glendower)                                                                    (J o L married twice.

1394-1455                                                                                                                            Second husband

(See Chart IX)                                                                                                                    Richard Woodville

                                                                                                                                               (See Chart VI)

                                  ¦|____________|__|¦                         |

                                 Anne             Edmund                 Henry VI

                              Mortimer         Mortimer               1421-1471

                             1390-1411      Earl of March          m. Margaret

                                   m.                1392-1425                   of Anjou

                               Richard                  m.                        1429-1482

                       Earl of Cambridge     Anne                           

                        (See above, right)    Stafford                        

                                                          d.1432                         |

                                                                                    Edward of


                                                                                     Prince of Wales



                                                                                     Anne Neville


                                                                                     (A N married twice.

                                                                                     Second husband,

                                                                                      Richard III)


                                                                                    Anne        Edward IV         Edmund               Elizabeth               Margaret          George                       Richard

                                                                               1439-1476    1442-1483     Earl of Rutland      1444-1504/9          1446-1503   Duke of Clarence     Duke of Gloucester

                                                                                     m.         m. 1 Eleanor         1443-1460                m.                            m.                1449-1478 ex.            1452-1485

                                                                                 Henry            Butler                                         John de la Pole          Charles                  m.                                  m.

                                                                               Holland           (née Talbot)                          2nd Duke of Suffolk    the Bold               Isabel                           Anne

                                                                               4th Duke        1436-1495?                                    d. 1491              of Burgundy           Neville                          Neville

                                                                               of Exeter        (contradicted                                                             1432-1477§       1451-1476                 1452-1485 ex.

                                                                              1430-1475       and in dispute)                                                                                                                 later, Richard III

                                                                                                    m. 2.Elizabeth


                                                                                                        (née Woodville)



                                                   ¦| _____________________________|______________________________________________________|¦

                                                   Elizabeth        Mary        Cecily                Edward                            Richard                         George           Four younger daughters.

                                                     b.1466         b.1467      b.1469            1470-1483?                   1473-1483?                         b. 1476

                                                                                                                  (contradicted                  (contradicted

                                                                                                                  and in dispute)                and in dispute)

                                                                                                                             "The Princes in the Tower"

                                                                                                                   also known as                 also known as

                                                                                                          "Sir Edward Guildford"     "Dr John Clement"

                                                                                                                      c.1470-1534                   c. 1500-1572

                                                                                                                 (contradicted                     (contradicted

                                                                                                                 and in dispute)                  and in dispute)






The Beauforts


The legitimacy of the children of John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford is contradicted and in dispute over a substantial  period of time.





John of Gaunt m. 3 Katherine Swynford

Duke of Lancaster             c.1350-1402




John Beaufort                Henry Beaufort         Thomas Beaufort        Joan Beaufort

                                                                                                                        c.1371-1410                     c.1375-1447                c.1377-1436                c.1379-1440

                                                                                                                        Marquess of                   Cardinal Beaufort        m. Margaret Neville   m. Ralph Neville

                                                                                                                        Somerset                        of Winchester                      1377-1424            1st Earl of Westmoreland

                                                                                                                       m. Margaret Holland                                                                                   c.1364-1425

                                                                                                                       c.1381-1439                                                                                                (See Chart V)



Henry             John             m. Margaret Beauchamp       Thomas     Edmund         m. Eleanor Beauchamp    Joan    m. James I         Margaret       m. Thomas Courtenay

Earl of           Duke of                      d.1482                    1405-1433    Duke of                  c.1407-c.1466        d.1445        King of      c.1410-1440           5th Earl of Devon

Somerset      Somerset                                                                          Somerset                                                                    Scotland                                          1414-1458

1401-1418     1404-1444                                                                      c.1406-1455§


                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ¦| ____________|__________________________|¦

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Thomas                      John                          Henry

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   6th Earl of Devon     7th Earl of Devon     d.1466

                                             |                                                                                                                                                                      1432-1461                  1435-1471


                                 Margaret Beaufort


                                  m.1  John de la Pole

                                  m.2 Edmund Tudor

                                         Earl of Richmond


                                  (Henry Tudor

                                   Earl of Richmond

                                    later, Henry VII


                                  m.3 Sir Henry Stafford

                                               d. 1471

                                  m. 4 Thomas Stanley

                                           Earl of Derby


                                  (See Charts IV & VI)



Henry          by Joan Hill   Edmund      John     Thomas        Margaret                          Eleanor                    Elizabeth                     Mary                Anne              Joan

Duke of                              Duke of     d.1471§  d. by 1463   m. Humphrey Stafford   m. James Butler      m. Sir Henry Lewes    m. Mr Burgh    m. William     m. Robert,

Somerset                           Somerset                                       d.1457                               Earl of Wilstshire                                                                   Paston,             Lord of

1436-1464 ex.                    c.1439-1471 ex.                        (See Chart VII)                 1422-1461 ex.                                                                       Knight             Howth

                         |                                                                                                                                                                                                                 d.1496

              Charles Somerset

              Earl of Worcester





The Tudors


The legitimacy of the children of the union of Katherine de Valois and Owen Tudor is contradicted and in dispute over a substantial period of time.



Henry V              m. 1 Katherine de Valois      m. 2          Owen Tudor

   1387-1422                             1401-1437                            c.1400-1461 ex.




Edmund Tudor              Jasper Tudor            m. Katherine Woodville    Owen Thomas Edward   un-named     Margaret,

Earl of Richmond         Earl of Pembroke               d. by 1513                  1432-1502                  daughter           or

 c.1430-1456                 later, Duke of Bedford    (See Chart VI)            also known as           b & d 1437    Katherine

m. Margaret Beaufort    c.1431-1495                                                       Edward Bridgewater                        1443-1509

                                                                                                                                                              professed at Westminster 

  (See Chart III)


                                                                                                            Helen, Ellen, or Eleanor,

                                                                                                            m. William Gardiner of



     Henry Tudor

  Earl of Richmond


  First Tudor King of England






The Nevilles




The legitimacy of Joan Beaufort is contradicted and in dispute over a substantial  period of time (See Chart III)





Katherine Stafford     1.m     Ralph Neville     m.2     Joan  Beaufort

                                                                                                                                         c.1364-1425                          c.1379-1440

                                                                                                                                         1st Earl of                                                                  daughter of John of Gaunt

                                                                                                                                       Westmoreland                                                            granddaughter of Edward III

                                                                                    (See Chart II)



                                                                                                                                Earls of Westmoreland

                                                                                                                                           et seq.



Richard                   William                      George             Robert          Edward           Katherine                       Anne                         Eleanor                       Cecily

Earl of Salisbury     Lord Fauconberg     Lord Latimer    Bishop of       Lord                d.1483                           d.1450                       d.1472                         1415-1495

c.1400-1460§           Earl of Kent              d.1469             Salisbury      Bergavenny    m.1 John Mowbray      m. 1. Humphrey       m.1 Richard                 m. Richard

m. Alice de              c.1402-1463              m. Elizabeth     & Durham      d.1476                 Duke of Norfolk     Earl of Stafford        Le Despenser             Plantagenet

Montacute               m. Joan,                     1417-1480        c.1404-1457                                1392-1432               1402-1460               1394-1414                  Duke of York

c.1406-1462            Baroness                   daughter of                                                      m.2 Thomas                  m.2 Walter Blount   m.2 Henry Percy         1411-1460§

Heiress of the         Fauconberg               Richard Beauchamp                                               Strangeways                1st Lord                    2nd Earl of

Earls of Salisbury   1406-1490                 Earl of Warwick                                              m.3 John, Viscount             Mountjoy                 Northumberland

                                                                                                                                                  Beaumont                    c.1420-1474                1392-1455§

                                Alice                                                                                                         d. 1460                       (See Chart VII)        (See Chart IX)

                                   m.                                                                                                     m.4 Sir John Woodville

                       Sir John Conyers                                                                                              1445-1469 ex.                                                                                 House of York

                                                                                                                                                   (See Chart VI)                                                                               (See Chart II)


Richard        m. Anne         Thomas    John                    George               Joan           Cecily                   Alice            Eleanor            Katherine          Margaret

Earl of              d.1493        d.1460     1st Marquess       Archbishop        m.               d.1450                   m. Henry    d. by 1473        m. William         m. John

Salisbury         heiress                        of Montague        of York              William       m. 1. Henry           Lord            m. Thomas      Lord Hastings   de Vere

& Warwick       of                               Earl of                   c.1433-1476      FitzAlan     de Beauchamp     FitzHugh     Lord Stanley   1483 ex.           13th Earl of

1428-1471§     Richard                       Northumberland                             Earl of        Earl of                   d. 1472       1st Earl of                                     Oxford

"Warwick        Beauchamp                c.1429-1471§                                   Arundel     Warwick                                    Derby                                        1442-1515

The                   Earl of                         m. Isabella                                                          1425-1445                                 c.1435-1504

Kingmaker"    Warwick                      Ingoldesthorpe                                                  m. 2. John Tiptoft

                                                                                                                                         Earl of Worcester

                                                                                                                                         1470 ex.



Isabel                         Anne

1451-1476                  1456-1485

m. George                  m. Richard

Duke of Clarence      Duke of Gloucester

1449-1478 ex.            later, Richard III





The Woodvilles





John of Lancaster   m.   Jacquetta of Luxembourg   m. 2   Richard Woodville

Duke of Bedford                     c.1416-1472                          1st Earl Rivers

    1389-1435                      daughter of Peter                     c.1405-1469 ex.

                                            of Luxembourg,

                                             Count of St. Pol




Elizabeth               Anne   m. 1 William                       Margaret   m.   Thomas                  Anthony    m. 1 Elizabeth     Mary              Jacquetta   m.  John

1437-1492        1438-1489      Viscount Bourchier     1439-1490        Maltravers               2nd Earl             Baroness  1442-1481      1444-1509     Lord Strange

m. 1 Sir John                               (See Chart VIII)                          Earl of Arundel             Rivers                Scales         m. William                        of Knockin

Grey  1461§                      m. 2  Sir Edward                                          1450-1524            1440-1483 ex.    1436-1473          Herbert                            d. 1479

m. 2 Edward IV                          Wingfield                                                                                              m. 2 Mary                 Earl of

(See Chart II)                 m. 3  George Grey                                                                                                  FitzLewes          Pembroke &

                                                   Earl of Kent                                                                                                                          Huntingdon




John         m. Katherine           Lionel            Edward           Richard          John & Lewis      Katherine   m. 1 Henry Stafford       Eleanor          Martha

a Knight        Neville               Bishop of       a Knight         3rd Earl           died young           1450-1513         2nd Duke of          1452-1492    1454-1504

1446-1469   c. 1400-1483?     Salisbury      1448-1488        Rivers                                                                  Buckingham         m. Anthony  m. Sir John

ex.                 Dowager            1447-1484                         1449-1491                                                              1455-1483 ex.          Lord Grey     Bromley

                     Duchess of                                                                                                                          m. 2 Jasper Tudor               of Ruthin

                     Norfolk                                                                                                                                       Duke of Bedford          d. 1481

                                                                                                                                                                   (See Charts III & VI)


By Elizabeth Woodville’s first marriage to Sir John Grey


Thomas                   m. 1 Anne Holland        Richard

Marquess of Dorset          1455-1475            a Knight

1455-1501               m. 2 Cecilia                  1456-83 ex.

                                        Baroness Bonville







The Dukes of Buckingham


The marriage of the "old" nobility (the Duke of Buckingham) to the "new" nobility (Katherine Woodville).



                                    Anne                                                        m. 1 Thomas

                                    Countess of Buckingham                                  3rd Earl of Stafford

                                    1387-1438                                                       1368-1392

                                    daughter of Thomas of Woodstock          m. 2 Edmund

                                    grand-daughter of Edward III                            5th Earl of Stafford


                                                                                                             (Thomas and Edmund were brothers)




Anne          m. 1 Edmund Mortimer                      Humphrey                         m. Anne

c.1398-1432      Earl of March                              6th Earl of Stafford                d.1450

                          1391-1425                                  1st Duke of Buckingham         daughter of Ralph Neville

                          m. 2 John Holland                       1402-1460§                            1st Earl of Westmoreland

                          3rd Duke of Exeter                                                                            (See Chart V)





                        Humphrey          m. Margaret Beaufort            Henry        m. Margaret Beaufort               Anne     m. Aubrey

                        Earl of Stafford       d.1474                              a Knight          1443-1509                          d.1472        de Vere

                        d.1455?                   daughter of Edmund          d.1471             daughter of John Beaufort                     1462 ex.

                                                        Duke of Somerset                                     Duke of Somerset

                                                        (See Chart III)                                       (See Chart III)




                                    Henry                                m. Katherine Woodville            Humphrey

                                    2nd Duke of Buckingham        died before 1513                 Earl of Devon

                                    1454-1483 ex.                                                                      1469 ex.




                                    By the second marriage of  Anne (c.1398-1432) to John Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter (c. 1395-1447)

                  ¦| ______________|_________________|¦

                  Henry Holland        m. 1 Anne Plantagenet

                  4th Duke of Exeter         1439-1476

                  1430-1475                      sister of Edward IV m. 2 Sir Thomas St Leger ex.




                                          Anne              m. Thomas Grey

                                          c.1455-1475        Marquess of Dorset


                                                                     (See Chart VI)






The Bourchiers


Anne, Countess of Buckingham, married three times. The third marriage to William Bourchier, Earl of Eu, is charted here. The first two marriages are on Chart VII.



                                        Anne                                                     m. 3  William Bourchier

                                        Countess of Buckingham                               Earl of Eu

                                        1383-1438                                                      d.1420

                                        daughter of Thomas of Woodstock

                                        grand-daughter of Edward III




Henry Bourchier        m. Isabella               Thomas                      William                 Eleanor                      John

1st Earl of Essex        Plantagenet             Cardinal Bourchier      Lord                    c.1417-1484               Lord Berners

1406-1483                1409-1484              Archbishop of             FitzWarenne          m. John Mowbray       d.1474

                                  sister of Richard      Canterbury                 c.1412-1472          Duke of Norfolk

                                  Duke of York          c.1407-1486                                            1415-1461

                                 (See Chart II)





William                      m. Anne Woodville         Henry           Humphrey

Viscount Bourchier          c.1438-1489              d.1462           Lord Cromwell

1471§                            (See Chart VI)                                1471§


Last revised 010201

(Errors & Omissions, excepted)

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“Can you please let me have a calendar of events from the birth of Richard, Duke of York, until the death of John Clement.”


Pleased to oblige, in an on-going method of inquiry.






1470    3 November. Birth of Edward V.



1473   17 August. Birth of Richard, Duke of York.




1477    6/7 February. Birth of Thomas More.






1483     9 April. Death of Edward IV (1442- 1483).

            6 July. Coronation of Richard III (1452-1485).

            October. Edward V (1470-1483?) and Richard, Duke of York (1473-1483?) disappear from the Tower of London.


1485    16 March. Death of Richard's queen, Anne.

           22 August. Death of Richard III at Bosworth.

           30 October. Coronation of Henry VII (1457-1509).

1486    18 January. Marriage of Henry VII to Elizabeth of York (1465-1503).

           19 September. Birth of Prince Arthur (1486-1502).



1489   13 February. First trace of John Clement in Matricules de l'Université de Louvain.


1491    28 June. Birth of Henry VIII.

1492      8 June. Death of Elizabeth Woodville (1437?-1492).





1497    August?. Birth of Hans Holbein the Younger (1497/8-1543).




1501   14 November. Prince Arthur marries Katherine of Aragon (1485-1536).

1502     2 April. Death of Prince Arthur.

            6 May. Execution of Sir James Tyrrell.

1503   11 February. Death of Elizabeth of York.






1509    21 April. Death of Henry VII.

           11 June. Henry VIII marries Katherine of Aragon.

1510    18 January. First trace of Edward Guildford, masque at Greenwich with Henry VIII.

            1 June. First trace of John Clement in England, joust at Greenwich with Henry VIII.



1513   15-25 September. Second trace of Edward Guildford, knighted at Tournai by Henry VIII (St. MS. 146, f.101; L & P i, 2359).

           Thomas More begins to write The History of King Richard the Third. Report.

1514   Clement reported in More household.

1515   Clement reported in Bruges and Antwerp, by More, in Utopia.

          Henry VIII and Katherine, first surviving fetus, Mary I.



1518  Clement reported, by Harpsfield, Wolsey's Reader (in Latin or Greek?) at Corpus Christi, Oxford.

1519   Clement reported, by Erasmus, popular Lector in Greek at Corpus Christi (not rhetoric & humanity in Latin). No entry in official College records exists and no other report found to-date.

1520   Clement leaves Oxford. Meets Erasmus in Basel. Report.

1521    2 May. More knighted by Henry VIII.



1524    Clement visits Leonico, in Padua. Report.

1525   30 March. Clement recorded at University of Siena, awarded doctorate in medicine and arts. Confirmation of Clement record in royal household accounts as 'Sewer’ ('Server') of the Chamber, ultra mare' (overseas).

1526   Clement recorded in London (in Royal accounts).

           Mid-October. Holbein's first visit to More's house in Chelsea.

           Marriage of John and Margaret Clement, out of More's house. Report.

1527    1 February. Clement begins meteoric rise to eminence: admitted Fellow of Royal College of Physicians of London.

           Mid-July. Report of Clement (no.4), by Holbein, at More's house.

1528   16 April. Clement appointed 'Elect' at Royal College.

           Mid-July. Report of death, by Holbein, of Sir Edward Guildford.

           19 August. Holbein returns to Basel.

1529   Clement appointed 'Consiliarius' at Royal College.

           Clement attends Wolsey at Esher.

           25 October. More appointed Lord Chancellor.

1530   Clement re-appointed 'Consiliarius'.

1531   Clement re-appointed 'Consiliarius'.

1532   16 May. More resigns Lord Chancellorship.

           October. Holbein returns to England, resides at Eltham.

1533    7 September. Henry VII and Anne Boleyn, first surviving fetus, Elizabeth I.

1534   17 April. More arrested and sent to Tower. (L & P)

             Clement arrested and sent to Fleet prison. (L & P)

            4 June. Report of death, 'Antony' to Thomas Cromwell, of Sir Edward Guildford.

           11 October. Letter from John Dudley to Thomas Cromwell. (L & P)

1535    Report of Clement called for medical advice, by Fisher, in the Tower.

            6 July. Execution of Sir Thomas More.

1536    7 January. Death of Katherine of Aragon (b. 1485).

           29 January. Anne Boleyn, male perinatal death, in eighth month.

           19 May. Execution of Anne Boleyn (b. 1507).

           20 May. Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour.

1537   12 October. Birth of Edward VI.

           27 October. Death of Jane Seymour (b. 1509).


1539    Clement's Royal Household salary (£10 semi-annually) cancelled.

1540    6 January. Henry marries Anne of Cleves (1515-1557).

            9 July. Henry divorces Anne.

           28 July. Execution of Thomas Cromwell.

           28 July. Henry marries Catherine Howard.


1542   13 February. Execution of Catherine Howard.

1543   12 July. Henry marries Catherine Parr.

           November. Death of Holbein in London.

1544    Clement appointed President of the Royal College of Physicians.

            Death of Margaret Roper.

1545    John and Margaret Clement granted lease for 30 years at 20 shillings per annum, by New College, Oxford, of Marshfoot House in Essex.


1547   28 January. Death of Henry VIII.

           Edward VI proclaimed King.

           Clement re-appointed 'Consiliarius'.


1549    Clement's Marshfoot lease rescinded. Loses extensive library from town house, Bucklersbury. Leaves England for Louvain.


1551    January. Rector registers Clement 'nobilis' and 'non juravit' ('of noble birth and without swearing the customary students' oath') in registers of University of Louvain.

1552    Clement excepted from a general pardon granted by Edward VI.

          28 August. Inventory of Clement's house at Marshfoot, contents confiscated by Sir Anthony Wingfield, approved by Sir William Cecil.

1553    6 July. Death of Edward VI.

           The Anarchic Period: John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, 'forces' son and daughter-in-law, Guildford Dudley and Lady Jane Grey, on to the English throne, insisting his son should be known as 'king'. All three subsequently paid with their heads.

          13 July. Mary proclaimed Queen.

1554   19 March. Clement returns to England (i.e. nine months later).

             8 May. Thomas Clement, M.A., granted royal annuity of £20.

1555    Clement appointed 'Censor'.

1556    Clement appointed 'Consiliarius'.

1557    William Rastell publishes More's "Workes" dedicated to Queen Mary.

1558    Clement re-appointed 'Consiliarius'.

           17 November. Death of Queen Mary I (1515-1558).

           Accession of Elizabeth I (1553-1603).

           Clement leaves England for Flanders for last time.




1562    March. Clement re-registers 'nobilis' in University of Louvain.

            August. William Rastell registers 'nobilis' in University of Louvain.






1568    3 June. Clement re-registers in University of Louvain.


1570    6 July. Death of Margaret Clement, buried in Mechelen.


1572    1 July. Death of John Clement at 1 Blokstraat, St. Johannes parish, Malines (Mechelen). Buried next day behind the High Altar in Sint Romulduskerk. Six children of marriage.


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