I to VIII
“I want to know the general history and don’t know where to start…”
There are many rooms in the house of general history and if you want to know where to start may I suggest you examine the official genealogies in the royal chartroom. A quick glance will enable you and other new readers to see some of the claims by birth and marriage of the great sovereign houses of Europe. This is the conservative beginning of the study of the general history of England. The activist and progressive studies (and the stories!) come later.
House Name Accession Years Married Children ____________________________________________________________________________
Norman William 1066 21 Matilda of Flanders Robert, Willam II, Henry I, Adela.
William II I087 13
Henry I 1100 35 1. Matilda of Scotland William, Matilda.
2. Adela of Louvain
Stephen 1135 19 Matilda of Boulogne Eustace
Planta- Henry II 1154 35 Eleanor of Guienne Henry, Richard I, Geoffrey, John.
-genet Richard I 1189 10 Berengaria of Navarre
John 1199 17 1. Hadwisa of Gloucester Henry III, Eleanor (Married, Simon de Montfort)
2. Isabella of Angoulème
Henry III 1216 56 Eleanor of Provence Edward I, Margaret , (Married, Alexander III of Scotland)
Edward I 1272 35 1. Eleanor of Castile Edward II
2. Margaret of France (Lines of descent , Edward I & II, are broken)
Edward II 1307 20 Isabella of France Edward III
Edward III 1327 50 Philippa of Hainault Black Prince, Lionel, John of Gaunt, Edmund.
(The Queen was pregnant 18 consecutive years).
Richard II 1377 22 1. Anne of Bohemia
2. Isabella of France
Lancaster Henry IV 1399 14 1. Mary de Bohun Henry V, John Duke of Bedford, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester
2. Joan of Navarre
Henry V 1413 9 Catherine of France Henry VI
Henry VI 1422 39 Margaret of Anjou Edward
York Edward IV 1461 22 Elizabeth Woodville Edward V, Richard, Duke of York, Elizabeth.
Edward V 1483 2 months
Richard III 1483 2 Anne Neville Edward.
Tudor Henry VII 1485 24 Elizabeth of York Arthur, Henry VIII, Margaret, Mary
Henry VIII 1509 38 1. Katherine of Aragon Mary
2. Anne Boleyn Elizabeth I
3. Jane Seymour Edward VI
4. Anne of Cleves
5. Catherine Howard
6. Catherine Parr
Edward VI 1547 6
Mary I 1553 5 Married, Philip II of Spain
Elizabeth I 1558 45
Stuart James I 1603 22 Anne of Denmark Henry, Charles I, Elizabeth,
Charles I 1625 24 Henrietta Maria of France Chalres II, James II, Mary.
Commonwealth 1649 4
Protectorate 1653 7
Charles II 1660 25 Catherine of Portugal
James II 1685 4 1. Anne Hyde Mary, Anne.
2. Mary of Modena James Francis Edward.
William & Mary 1689 13
Anne 1702 12 Prince George of Denmark
Hanover George I 1714 13 Sophia of Brunswick George II
George II 1727 33 Caroline of Anspach Frederick, Prince of Wales; William , Duke of Cumberland.
George III 1760 60 Charlotte-Sophia of Mecklenburg-Strelitz George IV, William IV, Edward. Duke of Kent.
George IV 1820 10 Caroline of Brunswick
William IV 1830 7 Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Victoria 1837 64 Albert of Saxe-Coburg Edward VII, Alfred, Arthur, Leopold, Victoria, Alice,Helena, Louise, Beatrice.
Edward VII 1901 9 Alexandra of Denmark Albert, George V, Louise, Victoria, Maud.
George V 1910 26 Victoria Mary of Teck Edward VIII, George VI, Mary, Henry, George, John.
Windsor Edward VIII 1936 (abdicated the same year)
(from 1917) George VI 1936 16 Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon Elizabeth II, Margaret Rose.
Elizabeth 1952 Philip Montbatten Charles, Anne, Andrew, Edward.
(formerly Prince Philip
of Greece and Denmark)
created Duke of Edinburgh.
Edward III m. Phillippa of Hainault
Edward Lionel of Antwerp John of Gaunt Edmund of Langley Thomas of Woodstock
Prince of Wales Duke of Clarence Duke of Lancaster Duke of York Duke of Gloucester
1330-1376 1338-1368 1340-1399 1341-1402 1355-1397
"The Black Prince" m. 1 Blanche of m. 2 Constance (See Chart VII)
Lancaster of Castile
m. 3 Katherine Swynford
and in dispute)
| | | (See Chart III) |
¦|___ |________________________________________|¦ Richard II Philippa Henry IV m. Mary de Bohun Edward Richard m. Anne Mortimer
1367-1400 1355-1381 1367-1413 c1366-1394 Duke of York Earl of Cambridge 1390-1411
m. c1373-1415§ c1375-1415 ex. (See below, left)
Edmund Mortimer ¦|_______________|______________________________________|¦
3rd Earl of March Isabella m. Henry Bourchier Richard m. Cecily Neville
1352-1381 1st Earl of Essex Plantagenet 1415-1495
¬ 1409-1483 Duke of York
(See Chart VIII) 1411-1460§
____|____ ¦|___________|_________|¦ ¦|_____|____________________________________________________________|¦
Elizabeth Roger Sir Edmund Henry V Thomas John Humphrey
m 4th Earl of March Mortimer 1387-1422 Duke of Clarence Duke of Bedford Duke of Gloucester
Sir Henry 1373-1398§ 1376-1409 m. Katherine 1388-1431§ 1389-1435 1390-1447
Percy m. m. ¬ de Valois m. m. 1 Anne of m. 1 Jacqueline
"Hotspur" Eleanor Katherine 1401-1437 Margaret Burgundy de Hainault
1361-1403§ Holland d.1413 (Ancestor Holland 1404-1432 (diu)
| 1373-1405 (daughter of Tudors. d. 1439 m. 2 Jaquetta of m. 2 Eleanor
Henry Percy ¬ of (See Chart IV) Luxembourg Cobham
2nd Earl of Owen 1416-1472 d. 1446 or 57
Northumberland Glendower) (J o L married twice.
1394-1455 Second husband
(See Chart IX) Richard Woodville
(See Chart VI)
Anne Edmund Henry VI
Mortimer Mortimer 1421-1471
1390-1411 Earl of March m. Margaret
m. 1392-1425 of Anjou
Richard m. 1429-1482
Earl of Cambridge Anne
(See above, right) Stafford
Prince of Wales
(A N married twice.
Anne Edward IV Edmund Elizabeth Margaret George Richard
1439-1476 1442-1483 Earl of Rutland 1444-1504/9 1446-1503 Duke of Clarence Duke of Gloucester
m. m. 1 Eleanor 1443-1460 m. m. 1449-1478 ex. 1452-1485
Henry Butler John de la Pole Charles m. m.
Holland (née Talbot) 2nd Duke of Suffolk the Bold Isabel Anne
4th Duke 1436-1495? d. 1491 of Burgundy Neville Neville
of Exeter (contradicted 1432-1477§ 1451-1476 1452-1485 ex.
1430-1475 and in dispute) later, Richard III
Elizabeth Mary Cecily Edward Richard George Four younger daughters.
b.1466 b.1467 b.1469 1470-1483? 1473-1483? b. 1476
and in dispute) and in dispute)
"The Princes in the Tower"
also known as also known as
"Sir Edward Guildford" "Dr John Clement"
c.1470-1534 c. 1500-1572
and in dispute) and in dispute)
The legitimacy of the children of John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford is contradicted and in dispute over a substantial period of time.
John of Gaunt m. 3 Katherine Swynford
Duke of Lancaster c.1350-1402
John Beaufort Henry Beaufort Thomas Beaufort Joan Beaufort
c.1371-1410 c.1375-1447 c.1377-1436 c.1379-1440
Marquess of Cardinal Beaufort m. Margaret Neville m. Ralph Neville
Somerset of Winchester 1377-1424 1st Earl of Westmoreland
m. Margaret Holland c.1364-1425
c.1381-1439 (See Chart V)
Henry John m. Margaret Beauchamp Thomas Edmund m. Eleanor Beauchamp Joan m. James I Margaret m. Thomas Courtenay
Earl of Duke of d.1482 1405-1433 Duke of c.1407-c.1466 d.1445 King of c.1410-1440 5th Earl of Devon
Somerset Somerset Somerset Scotland 1414-1458
1401-1418 1404-1444 c.1406-1455§
Thomas John Henry
6th Earl of Devon 7th Earl of Devon d.1466
| 1432-1461 1435-1471
m.1 John de la Pole
m.2 Edmund Tudor
Earl of Richmond
Earl of Richmond
later, Henry VII
m.3 Sir Henry Stafford
m. 4 Thomas Stanley
Earl of Derby
(See Charts IV & VI)
Henry by Joan Hill Edmund John Thomas Margaret Eleanor Elizabeth Mary Anne Joan
Duke of Duke of d.1471§ d. by 1463 m. Humphrey Stafford m. James Butler m. Sir Henry Lewes m. Mr Burgh m. William m. Robert,
Somerset Somerset d.1457 Earl of Wilstshire Paston, Lord of
1436-1464 ex. c.1439-1471 ex. (See Chart VII) 1422-1461 ex. Knight Howth
Earl of Worcester
The legitimacy of the children of the union of Katherine de Valois and Owen Tudor is contradicted and in dispute over a substantial period of time.
Henry V m. 1 Katherine de Valois m. 2 Owen Tudor
1387-1422 1401-1437 c.1400-1461 ex.
Edmund Tudor Jasper Tudor m. Katherine Woodville Owen Thomas Edward un-named Margaret,
Earl of Richmond Earl of Pembroke d. by 1513 1432-1502 daughter or
c.1430-1456 later, Duke of Bedford (See Chart VI) also known as b & d 1437 Katherine
m. Margaret Beaufort c.1431-1495 Edward Bridgewater 1443-1509
professed at Westminster
(See Chart III)
Helen, Ellen, or Eleanor,
m. William Gardiner of
Earl of Richmond
First Tudor King of England
The legitimacy of Joan Beaufort is contradicted and in dispute over a substantial period of time (See Chart III)
Katherine Stafford 1.m Ralph Neville m.2 Joan Beaufort
1st Earl of daughter of John of Gaunt
Westmoreland granddaughter of Edward III
(See Chart II)
Earls of Westmoreland
Richard William George Robert Edward Katherine Anne Eleanor Cecily
Earl of Salisbury Lord Fauconberg Lord Latimer Bishop of Lord d.1483 d.1450 d.1472 1415-1495
c.1400-1460§ Earl of Kent d.1469 Salisbury Bergavenny m.1 John Mowbray m. 1. Humphrey m.1 Richard m. Richard
m. Alice de c.1402-1463 m. Elizabeth & Durham d.1476 Duke of Norfolk Earl of Stafford Le Despenser Plantagenet
Montacute m. Joan, 1417-1480 c.1404-1457 1392-1432 1402-1460 1394-1414 Duke of York
c.1406-1462 Baroness daughter of m.2 Thomas m.2 Walter Blount m.2 Henry Percy 1411-1460§
Heiress of the Fauconberg Richard Beauchamp Strangeways 1st Lord 2nd Earl of
Earls of Salisbury 1406-1490 Earl of Warwick m.3 John, Viscount Mountjoy Northumberland
Beaumont c.1420-1474 1392-1455§
Alice d. 1460 (See Chart VII) (See Chart IX)
m. m.4 Sir John Woodville
Sir John Conyers 1445-1469 ex. House of York
(See Chart VI) (See Chart II)
Richard m. Anne Thomas John George Joan Cecily Alice Eleanor Katherine Margaret
Earl of d.1493 d.1460 1st Marquess Archbishop m. d.1450 m. Henry d. by 1473 m. William m. John
Salisbury heiress of Montague of York William m. 1. Henry Lord m. Thomas Lord Hastings de Vere
& Warwick of Earl of c.1433-1476 FitzAlan de Beauchamp FitzHugh Lord Stanley 1483 ex. 13th Earl of
1428-1471§ Richard Northumberland Earl of Earl of d. 1472 1st Earl of Oxford
"Warwick Beauchamp c.1429-1471§ Arundel Warwick Derby 1442-1515
The Earl of m. Isabella 1425-1445 c.1435-1504
Kingmaker" Warwick Ingoldesthorpe m. 2. John Tiptoft
Earl of Worcester
m. George m. Richard
Duke of Clarence Duke of Gloucester
1449-1478 ex. later, Richard III
John of Lancaster m. Jacquetta of Luxembourg m. 2 Richard Woodville
Duke of Bedford c.1416-1472 1st Earl Rivers
1389-1435 daughter of Peter c.1405-1469 ex.
Count of St. Pol
Elizabeth Anne m. 1 William Margaret m. Thomas Anthony m. 1 Elizabeth Mary Jacquetta m. John
1437-1492 1438-1489 Viscount Bourchier 1439-1490 Maltravers 2nd Earl Baroness 1442-1481 1444-1509 Lord Strange
m. 1 Sir John (See Chart VIII) Earl of Arundel Rivers Scales m. William of Knockin
Grey 1461§ m. 2 Sir Edward 1450-1524 1440-1483 ex. 1436-1473 Herbert d. 1479
m. 2 Edward IV Wingfield m. 2 Mary Earl of
(See Chart II) m. 3 George Grey FitzLewes Pembroke &
Earl of Kent Huntingdon
John m. Katherine Lionel Edward Richard John & Lewis Katherine m. 1 Henry Stafford Eleanor Martha
a Knight Neville Bishop of a Knight 3rd Earl died young 1450-1513 2nd Duke of 1452-1492 1454-1504
1446-1469 c. 1400-1483? Salisbury 1448-1488 Rivers Buckingham m. Anthony m. Sir John
ex. Dowager 1447-1484 1449-1491 1455-1483 ex. Lord Grey Bromley
Duchess of m. 2 Jasper Tudor of Ruthin
Norfolk Duke of Bedford d. 1481
(See Charts III & VI)
By Elizabeth Woodville’s first marriage to Sir John Grey
Thomas m. 1 Anne Holland Richard
Marquess of Dorset 1455-1475 a Knight
1455-1501 m. 2 Cecilia 1456-83 ex.
The marriage of the "old" nobility (the Duke of Buckingham) to the "new" nobility (Katherine Woodville).
Anne m. 1 Thomas
Countess of Buckingham 3rd Earl of Stafford
daughter of Thomas of Woodstock m. 2 Edmund
grand-daughter of Edward III 5th Earl of Stafford
(Thomas and Edmund were brothers)
Anne m. 1 Edmund Mortimer Humphrey m. Anne
c.1398-1432 Earl of March 6th Earl of Stafford d.1450
1391-1425 1st Duke of Buckingham daughter of Ralph Neville
m. 2 John Holland 1402-1460§ 1st Earl of Westmoreland
3rd Duke of Exeter (See Chart V)
Humphrey m. Margaret Beaufort Henry m. Margaret Beaufort Anne m. Aubrey
Earl of Stafford d.1474 a Knight 1443-1509 d.1472 de Vere
d.1455? daughter of Edmund d.1471 daughter of John Beaufort 1462 ex.
Duke of Somerset Duke of Somerset
(See Chart III) (See Chart III)
Henry m. Katherine Woodville Humphrey
2nd Duke of Buckingham died before 1513 Earl of Devon
1454-1483 ex. 1469 ex.
By the second marriage of Anne (c.1398-1432) to John Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter (c. 1395-1447)
Henry Holland m. 1 Anne Plantagenet
4th Duke of Exeter 1439-1476
1430-1475 sister of Edward IV m. 2 Sir Thomas St Leger ex.
Anne m. Thomas Grey
c.1455-1475 Marquess of Dorset
(See Chart VI)
Anne, Countess of Buckingham, married three times. The third marriage to William Bourchier, Earl of Eu, is charted here. The first two marriages are on Chart VII.
Anne m. 3 William Bourchier
Countess of Buckingham Earl of Eu
daughter of Thomas of Woodstock
grand-daughter of Edward III
Henry Bourchier m. Isabella Thomas William Eleanor John
1st Earl of Essex Plantagenet Cardinal Bourchier Lord c.1417-1484 Lord Berners
1406-1483 1409-1484 Archbishop of FitzWarenne m. John Mowbray d.1474
sister of Richard Canterbury c.1412-1472 Duke of Norfolk
Duke of York c.1407-1486 1415-1461
(See Chart II)
William m. Anne Woodville Henry Humphrey
Viscount Bourchier c.1438-1489 d.1462 Lord Cromwell
1471§ (See Chart VI) 1471§
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(Errors & Omissions, excepted)
“Can you please let me have a calendar of events from the birth of Richard, Duke of York, until the death of John Clement.”
Pleased to oblige, in an on-going method of inquiry.
1470 3 November. Birth of Edward V.
1473 17 August. Birth of Richard, Duke of York.
1477 6/7 February. Birth of Thomas More.
1483 9 April. Death of Edward IV (1442- 1483).
6 July. Coronation of Richard III (1452-1485).
October. Edward V (1470-1483?) and Richard, Duke of York (1473-1483?) disappear from the Tower of London.
1485 16 March. Death of Richard's queen, Anne.
22 August. Death of Richard III at Bosworth.
30 October. Coronation of Henry VII (1457-1509).
1486 18 January. Marriage of Henry VII to Elizabeth of York (1465-1503).
19 September. Birth of Prince Arthur (1486-1502).
1489 13 February. First trace of John Clement in Matricules de l'Université de Louvain.
1491 28 June. Birth of Henry VIII.
1492 8 June. Death of Elizabeth Woodville (1437?-1492).
1497 August?. Birth of Hans Holbein the Younger (1497/8-1543).
1501 14 November. Prince Arthur marries Katherine of Aragon (1485-1536).
1502 2 April. Death of Prince Arthur.
6 May. Execution of Sir James Tyrrell.
1503 11 February. Death of Elizabeth of York.
1509 21 April. Death of Henry VII.
11 June. Henry VIII marries Katherine of Aragon.
1510 18 January. First trace of Edward Guildford, masque at Greenwich with Henry VIII.
1 June. First trace of John Clement in England, joust at Greenwich with Henry VIII.
1513 15-25 September. Second trace of Edward Guildford, knighted at Tournai by Henry VIII (St. MS. 146, f.101; L & P i, 2359).
Thomas More begins to write The History of King Richard the Third. Report.
1514 Clement reported in More household.
1515 Clement reported in Bruges and Antwerp, by More, in Utopia.
Henry VIII and Katherine, first surviving fetus, Mary I.
1518 Clement reported, by Harpsfield, Wolsey's Reader (in Latin or Greek?) at Corpus Christi, Oxford.
1519 Clement reported, by Erasmus, popular Lector in Greek at Corpus Christi (not rhetoric & humanity in Latin). No entry in official College records exists and no other report found to-date.
1520 Clement leaves Oxford. Meets Erasmus in Basel. Report.
1521 2 May. More knighted by Henry VIII.
1524 Clement visits Leonico, in Padua. Report.
1525 30 March. Clement recorded at University of Siena, awarded doctorate in medicine and arts. Confirmation of Clement record in royal household accounts as 'Sewer’ ('Server') of the Chamber, ultra mare' (overseas).
1526 Clement recorded in London (in Royal accounts).
Mid-October. Holbein's first visit to More's house in Chelsea.
Marriage of John and Margaret Clement, out of More's house. Report.
1527 1 February. Clement begins meteoric rise to eminence: admitted Fellow of Royal College of Physicians of London.
Mid-July. Report of Clement (no.4), by Holbein, at More's house.
1528 16 April. Clement appointed 'Elect' at Royal College.
Mid-July. Report of death, by Holbein, of Sir Edward Guildford.
19 August. Holbein returns to Basel.
1529 Clement appointed 'Consiliarius' at Royal College.
Clement attends Wolsey at Esher.
25 October. More appointed Lord Chancellor.
1530 Clement re-appointed 'Consiliarius'.
1531 Clement re-appointed 'Consiliarius'.
1532 16 May. More resigns Lord Chancellorship.
October. Holbein returns to England, resides at Eltham.
1533 7 September. Henry VII and Anne Boleyn, first surviving fetus, Elizabeth I.
1534 17 April. More arrested and sent to Tower. (L & P)
Clement arrested and sent to Fleet prison. (L & P)
4 June. Report of death, 'Antony' to Thomas Cromwell, of Sir Edward Guildford.
11 October. Letter from John Dudley to Thomas Cromwell. (L & P)
1535 Report of Clement called for medical advice, by Fisher, in the Tower.
6 July. Execution of Sir Thomas More.
1536 7 January. Death of Katherine of Aragon (b. 1485).
29 January. Anne Boleyn, male perinatal death, in eighth month.
19 May. Execution of Anne Boleyn (b. 1507).
20 May. Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour.
1537 12 October. Birth of Edward VI.
27 October. Death of Jane Seymour (b. 1509).
1539 Clement's Royal Household salary (£10 semi-annually) cancelled.
1540 6 January. Henry marries Anne of Cleves (1515-1557).
9 July. Henry divorces Anne.
28 July. Execution of Thomas Cromwell.
28 July. Henry marries Catherine Howard.
1542 13 February. Execution of Catherine Howard.
1543 12 July. Henry marries Catherine Parr.
November. Death of Holbein in London.
1544 Clement appointed President of the Royal College of Physicians.
Death of Margaret Roper.
1545 John and Margaret Clement granted lease for 30 years at 20 shillings per annum, by New College, Oxford, of Marshfoot House in Essex.
1547 28 January. Death of Henry VIII.
Edward VI proclaimed King.
Clement re-appointed 'Consiliarius'.
1549 Clement's Marshfoot lease rescinded. Loses extensive library from town house, Bucklersbury. Leaves England for Louvain.
1551 January. Rector registers Clement 'nobilis' and 'non juravit' ('of noble birth and without swearing the customary students' oath') in registers of University of Louvain.
1552 Clement excepted from a general pardon granted by Edward VI.
28 August. Inventory of Clement's house at Marshfoot, contents confiscated by Sir Anthony Wingfield, approved by Sir William Cecil.
1553 6 July. Death of Edward VI.
The Anarchic Period: John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, 'forces' son and daughter-in-law, Guildford Dudley and Lady Jane Grey, on to the English throne, insisting his son should be known as 'king'. All three subsequently paid with their heads.
13 July. Mary proclaimed Queen.
1554 19 March. Clement returns to England (i.e. nine months later).
8 May. Thomas Clement, M.A., granted royal annuity of £20.
1555 Clement appointed 'Censor'.
1556 Clement appointed 'Consiliarius'.
1557 William Rastell publishes More's "Workes" dedicated to Queen Mary.
1558 Clement re-appointed 'Consiliarius'.
17 November. Death of Queen Mary I (1515-1558).
Accession of Elizabeth I (1553-1603).
Clement leaves England for Flanders for last time.
1562 March. Clement re-registers 'nobilis' in University of Louvain.
August. William Rastell registers 'nobilis' in University of Louvain.
1568 3 June. Clement re-registers in University of Louvain.
1570 6 July. Death of Margaret Clement, buried in Mechelen.
1572 1 July. Death of John Clement at 1 Blokstraat, St. Johannes parish, Malines (Mechelen). Buried next day behind the High Altar in Sint Romulduskerk. Six children of marriage.
Last Revision 010201